<https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trolley_Problem.svg#/media/File:Trolley_Problem.svg>

The trolley problem is a thought experiment, often used as a basis for starting a discussion about ethics. There are five people in the way of an oncoming trolley, do you pull the lever to divert it to kill only a single person?

You may recognize this as similar to the ethical issues that arise with self-driving cars. A grandma is in the middle of the road, should the Tesla swerve away, knowing that it will then hit a man on the sidewalk?

The answer is that it doesn’t matter what your answer is, unless you also are involved at…


A picture I took years ago.

The picture is what it looks like. A man holding a light stick at a construction or maintenance site, while a machine that serves the same function also operates at the same site. This is Japan’s flavor of Universal Basic Income (UBI). In this essay I will briefly describe it, the merits and demerits I’ve observed, and discuss.

You see it all the time. Elderly at some construction site, sweeping in front of an apartment building, or the plethora of admin workers at a university or office.

In Japan, many “正社員” (Seishain), full-time employees, meet the definition of people working…


“Here’s the bottom line, you’d be doing a great service to your country. That sounds corny, I mean you’d be making a difference, it could really have big impact.”

“I’m still kind of in shock, I thought I had confidentiality when I was seeing my therapist.”

“Oh, ya, maybe that wasn’t clear. Your therapist did NOT violate your confidentiality or anything like that. We have been, let’s say, “tracking” all therapists that do sleep or dream related work.”

“Okay. Is that legal?”

“It’s funny, ya know, I meet lots of people, and people who ask that question clearly don’t know…


We did this comparison about a year ago, in order to better understand the offerings and differentiators of synthetic DNA manufacturing companies. Since then we’ve completed a partnership with Synplogen <https://www.synplogen.com/> to provide them with software tools.

While the offerings may have changed in the last year, from this comparison we made an important observation. While many researchers may using cloning methods rather than synthetic DNA due to reasons such as process familiarity or cost, another factor that is significant is turnaround time. …


By Elena Kayayan and Eli Lyons

We made this guide because of the demands of our internal research and we thought we could improve on existing materials.

If you are using synthetic DNA and are looking for software solutions, and/or bioinformatics support, please don’t hesitate to contact us <www.tupac.bio>.

Download PDF version

<https://www.slideshare.net/EliLyons/guide-to-sgrnacoding-oligo-design-v10-201242229>

Background on sgRNA-coding oligo design

· sgRNA allows the endonuclease enzymes Cas9 and dCas9 to target specific genome locations.

· sgRNA is commonly synonymous with ‘gRNA’.

· sgRNA-coding oligos are commonly used to clone DNA sequences that code for sgRNA into CRISPR plasmids.

· The term ‘spacer’ refers to the DNA coding for the sgRNA…


This is an infographic we made back in 2018 that maps the major synthetic DNA foundries (basically government-related institutions) at the time. We may post an updated one in the future. This was part of an analysis we did to better understand the landscape of synthetic DNA manufacturing.

If you are using synthetic DNA and are looking for software solutions, and/or bioinformatics support, please don’t hesitate to contact us <www.tupac.bio>.


IG: chb2037

I watched the videos The Orthogonality Thesis, Intelligence, and Stupidity and Why Not Just Think of AGI Like a Corporation? which were quite good. This is not the first time I’ve heard of the analogy of AGI and corporations.

While I don’t disagree with Robert’s analysis in the AGI video, the video doesn’t address some key points and the importance of the analogy.

First, consider these questions:

  1. Do corporations have goals independent that are not identical to other agents?
  2. Do corporations act with intelligence? Are they effective at achieving their goals?

The analogy between corporations and A.I. is useful not…


I don’t really care what the additional symbols would look like as long as they are sufficiently distinguishable from the current punctuation marks.

The problem is that I do not often feel ‘excited’. Paul says I’m brood-ish. So if I use an exclamation mark it is disingenuous. However, our culture has the expectation of including an emotional tone in our emails and texting, and a lack of exclamation may be associated with ungratefulness or dissatisfaction among other incorrect communication. Of course I am not the only one struggling with our current set of punctuation marks, there was even had a whole episode of Corporate about it.

From the reader's point of view it also becomes hard to interpret a person’s level of excitement…


Will. Or Will at a single time point.

Recently it seems many people are talking about free will. Famous people. And my cousins that dragged me into a discussion on it on Facebook. I refuse to read or listen to much of anything about it. The parts people focus on or argue about seem silly to me. So I’ll say something silly.

My understanding is that there is some kind of philosophical debate that is old and now new again regarding whether or not we have ‘free will’. First of all,

What the fuck is ‘free will’? !

Okay, first lets start with ‘will’.

What the fuck is will?!

Google says “the faculty by which a person decides on and…


This paper describes some useful applications of Design of Experiments methods to biofactory R&D. However, there are also some very serious issues in the paper. It is of particular concern because the issues are related to the claims made by the authors.

Starting with minor issues:

  • Figure 1. Shows ‘Statistical machine learning’ but there is no clear description of what machine learning methods they used in the content of the paper.
  • The caption for figure 2. appears to be misplaced to the bottom of page 5.

Moving onto major issues. The authors claim they reduced a design space of 4x3x3x3x24=2592…

Eli Lyons

A Hungarian man said to me, 'You don't talk much do you.' Co-founder/CEO of www.tupac.bio. Advisor to www.bisu.bio.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store